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Antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities of gold nanoparticles generated by methanolic extract of Euphorbia milii

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, May 2015
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Title
Antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities of gold nanoparticles generated by methanolic extract of Euphorbia milii
Published in
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, May 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12906-015-0691-7
Pubmed ID
Authors

Nazar Ul Islam, Ibrahim Khan, Abdur Rauf, Naveed Muhammad, Muhammad Shahid, Mohammad Raza Shah

Abstract

Nanotechnology has potential future for enhancing therapeutic efficacy and reducing the unwanted effects of herbal drugs. The biological research on Euphorbia species has been supported by the use of some plants in traditional medicines. Many species of Euphorbia have been reported as having strong sedative and analgesic effects. In the present research work gold nanoparticles of Euphorbia milii methanolic extract (Au-EM) were synthesized, characterized and tested for antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities. Au-EM was prepared by stirring 1 mM warm trihydrated tetrachloroaurate solution with E. milii methanolic extract without using any external reducing agents. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, infrared spectrophotometery, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy while their stability was evaluated against varying pH and different volumes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The metal sensing capacity of Au-EM was tested towards cobalt, copper, lead, mercury and nickel. Au-EM was evaluated in BALB/c mice at a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg for antinociceptive, muscle relaxant and sedative activities in comparison with the crude E. milii methanolic extract. Au-EM showed remarkable stability in different NaCl and pH solutions. Au-EM produced significant (P < 0.01) antinociceptive effect at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg as compared to the crude E. milii methanolic extract. In the rotarod test, Au-EM showed significant muscle relaxant effect at 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and 20 mg/kg (P < 0.01) after 30, 60 and 90 min. In an open field test significant sedative effect (P < 0.05) of Au-EM was observed at 10 and 20 mg/kg. Moreover significant detection sensitivity was demonstrated towards all the tested heavy metals. These results concluded that the gold nanoparticles improved the potency of E. milii methanolic extract and exhibited significant analgesic, muscle relaxant and sedative properties. The significant metals sensing ability and enhanced stability in different NaCl and pH solutions may enable us to explore different formulations of E. milii gold nanoparticles for potentially effective and safe nano-herbal therapy.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 35 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 35 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 9 26%
Student > Bachelor 5 14%
Unspecified 4 11%
Professor 3 9%
Researcher 3 9%
Other 11 31%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Unspecified 7 20%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 7 20%
Chemistry 5 14%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 9%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 9%
Other 10 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 May 2015.
All research outputs
#4,294,624
of 5,165,331 outputs
Outputs from BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
#1,363
of 1,564 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#141,913
of 172,831 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
#79
of 89 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 5,165,331 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,564 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.2. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 172,831 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 89 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.