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Variation in secondary metabolite production as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) at different stages of growth

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, March 2016
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66 Mendeley
Title
Variation in secondary metabolite production as well as antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) at different stages of growth
Published in
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, March 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12906-016-1072-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

Ali Ghasemzadeh, Hawa Z. E. Jaafar, Sadegh Ashkani, Asmah Rahmat, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Adam Puteh, Mahmud Tengku Muda Mohamed

Abstract

Zingiber zerumbet (L.) is a traditional Malaysian folk remedy that contains several interesting bioactive compounds of pharmaceutical quality. Total flavonoids and total phenolics content from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of Z. zerumbet at 3 different growth stages (3, 6, and 9 months) were determined using spectrophotometric methods and individual flavonoid and phenolic compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) activity was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disc diffusion method. Highest content of total flavonoid [29.7 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry material (DM)] and total phenolic (44.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DM) were detected in the rhizome extracts of 9-month-old plants. As the plant matured from 3 to 9 months, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) decreased in the leaf, but increased significantly in the rhizomes. Among the secondary metabolites identified, the most abundant, based on the concentrations, were as follows: flavonoids, catechin > quercetin > rutin > luteolin > myricetin > kaempferol; phenolic acids, gallic acid > ferulic acid > caffeic acid > cinnamic acid. Rhizome extracts from 9-month-old plants demonstrated the highest CHS activity (7.48 nkat/mg protein), followed by the 6-month-old rhizomes (5.79 nkat/mg protein) and 3-month-old leaf (4.76 nkat/mg protein). Nine-month-old rhizomes exhibited the highest DPPH activity (76.42 %), followed by the 6-month-old rhizomes (59.41 %) and 3-month-old leaves (57.82 %), with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 55.8, 86.4, and 98.5 μg/mL, respectively, compared to that of α- tocopherol (84.19 %; 44.8 μg/mL) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (70.25 %; 58.6 μg/mL). The highest FRAP activity was observed in 9-month-old rhizomes, with IC50 of 62.4 μg/mL. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Z. zerumbet extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria ranged from 30 to >100 µg/mL. Among the bacterial strains examined, Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to the leaf extract of Z. zerumbet, with MIC of 30.0 μg/mL and other strains were sensitive to the rhizome extracts. Three- and 9-month-old plants are recommended when harvesting the leaf and rhizome of Z. zerumbet, respectively, in order to obtain effective pharmaceutical quality of the desired compounds.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 66 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Malaysia 2 3%
Unknown 64 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 13 20%
Student > Bachelor 13 20%
Student > Ph. D. Student 11 17%
Unspecified 8 12%
Other 6 9%
Other 15 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 20 30%
Unspecified 13 20%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 10 15%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 9%
Medicine and Dentistry 4 6%
Other 13 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 29 March 2016.
All research outputs
#3,838,905
of 7,458,268 outputs
Outputs from BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
#1,058
of 1,842 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#148,429
of 273,071 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
#15
of 45 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,458,268 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,842 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.5. This one is in the 31st percentile – i.e., 31% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 273,071 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 35th percentile – i.e., 35% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 45 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 44th percentile – i.e., 44% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.