PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder commonly treated by levodopa. The findings from genetic studies on adverse effects (ADRs) and levodopa efficacy are mostly inconclusive. Here, we aim to identify predictive genetic biomarkers for levodopa response (LR) and determine common molecular link with disease susceptibility. A systematic review for LR was conducted for ADR, and drug efficacy, independently. All included articles were assessed for methodological quality on 14 parameters. GWAS of PD were also reviewed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis using STRING and functional enrichment using WebGestalt was performed to explore the common link between LR and PD.
From 37 candidate studies on levodopa toxicity, 18 genes were found associated, of which, CAn STR 13, 14 (DRD2) was most significantly associated with dyskinesia, followed by rs1801133 (MTHFR) with hyper-homocysteinemia, and rs474559 (HOMER1) with hallucination. Similarly, 8 studies on efficacy resulted in 4 genes in which rs28363170, rs3836790 (SLC6A3) and rs4680 (COMT), were significant. To establish the molecular connection between LR with PD, we identified 35 genes significantly associated with PD. With 19 proteins associated with LR and 35 with PD, two independent PPI networks were constructed. Among the 67 nodes (263 edges) in LR, and 62 nodes (190 edges) in PD pathophysiology, UBC, SNCA, FYN, SRC, CAMK2A, and SLC6A3 were identified as common potential candidates.
Our study revealed the genetically significant polymorphism concerning the ADRs and levodopa efficacy. The six common genes may be used as predictive markers for therapy optimization and as putative drug target candidates.